From the history of Latin America


Latin America was originally settled by immigrants from North-East Asia, which later merged with migratory flows and formed numerous Indian tribes and nationalities. The earliest primitive people belong to the 20-10-th millennium BC. e. by the time of the invasion of European conquerors in the end of 15-16 centuries. Most Indian tribes were at different stages of primitive society, engaged in gathering, hunting and fishing. Aymara, Aztec, Maya, Inca and others created early class of the state. After traveling H. Columbus discovered the Antilles islands of the archipelago, the coast of Central America and Venezuela (1492-1504), were founded the first Spanish settlement on the island of Hispaniola (Haiti) and Cuba, which have become strongholds of further penetration into the American continent. Expeditions of conquistadors led to the adoption of Spanish rule in Mexico, California, Florida, Central America and the entire South American continent, with the exception of Brazil, which won the Portugal and Guyana, captured by Britain, Holland and France. Factional fighting Indian chiefs, allied themselves with foreign invaders, facilitated the conquest of Latin America colonizers. Conquest of America by the Spaniards and Portuguese, mostly completed in 16-17 centuries. Despite the desperate resistance of indigenous peoples (as colonizers in many cases population to meet their extermination), Spain and Portugal are stuck their tongues, their religion (Catholicism) and had a great influence on the culture of Hispanics. English, French and Netherlands colonization also influenced the history of Latin America, but much less than the Spanish and Portuguese.
The development of capitalist relations, peasant and urban uprisings 18. (Peasant War in Peru, 1780-83, revolt in New Granada, 1781 and others) shook the colonial system and contributed to the awakening of national consciousness of the local population. The war for the independence of British colonies in North America, 1775-83 and the French Revolution accelerated this process. As a result of the revolt of black slaves in Haiti began in 1791, and the war against the French colonizers, slavery was abolished (1801) and won the independence of Haiti (1804), at the same time undermined the Spanish domination in Santo Domingo (modern Dominican Republic). The war for the independence of Spanish colonies in America, 1810-26 ended with the destruction of the colonial regime. Almost all the Spanish colonies won political independence. Attempts to liberate Cuba and Puerto Rico had failed because of interference by the U.S. and Britain. Amid a broad popular movement in September 1822 was proclaimed the independence of Brazil from Portugal.
Education states was an essential prerequisite for accelerating the development of capitalist relations. Maintaining a large landed estates and privileges of the church hindered this process. In the mid-19 century. started a new upsurge of the revolutionary movement, expressed in the civil wars in Argentina, Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Uruguay, Guatemala, and then make a major social reforms in Peru, Honduras, Brazil. Have been abolished poll tax from the Indian and Negro slavery (without allocation of land), the destruction of noble titles. In 1889 the monarchy was abolished and the republic proclaimed in Brazil. After the arrival here of socialism and its collapse (except Cuba) went active process of capitalist development.

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